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Alexandre Legros



My scientific interests relate to the impact and the implications of specific electric and/or magnetic non-invasive stimulations applied to the human brain. These stimulations can be delivered using different modalities such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), transcranial Direct or Alternating Electric Stimulation (tDCS or tACS), or via experimental technologies using time-varying magnetic fields to induce electric fields able to modulate endogenous physiological electric activity in brain structures. In terms of outcomes, I have thoroughly studied the impact of these stimulations on various aspects of human motor control (voluntary and involuntary), cognitive functions (memory and attention) and neurophysiological responses (e.g. Electroencephalography – EEG. In current projects supported by several industry partners (Hydro-Quebec, Electricité de France - EDF, Réseaux de Transport d’électricité – RTE, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry – CRIEPI, Amprion ; coordinating this international Utilities Threshold Initiative Consortium – UTIC) and conducted in synergy between Canada and France (EuroMov Digital Health in Motion, Univ Montpellier, IMT Mines Ales, Montpellier, France), we are investigating the threshold and underlying action mechanisms for acute non-invasive neurostimulation applied either electrically or magnetically. We are studying visual (retinal magnetophospnes), vestibular (balance and vestibulo-ocular responses), EEG (using source reconstruction and source connectivity) and fMRI outcomes in order to establish the minimum stimuli intensity for a given frequency able to trigger a neural, perceptive or a behavioral response. We are also using computational neurosciences to model what sort of stimulus will induce what sort of response on different configurations of neural networks. The primary purpose of this research is to help provide more accurate and evidence-based guidelines regarding EMF exposure, for both electricity producers and international regulatory bodies. A secondary objective is to explore the potential of using low intensity time-varying electric and magnetic stimuli for translational/therapeutic applications. In regards of the health protection aspects, I am currently co-chairing the subcommittee 3 of IEEE-ICES (exposures limits for 0-3kHz) and chairing the Editorial Working Group in charge of preparing the next LF standards generation.


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Human Postural Control Under High Levels of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

Nicolas Bouisset , Sebastien Villard , A. Legros
IEEE Access, 2020, 8, pp.101377-101385. ⟨10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2997643⟩
Journal articles hal-03499647v1

Gapless ground state in the archetypal quantum kagome antiferromagnet ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2

P. Khuntia , Matias Velázquez , Quentin Barthélemy , Fabrice Bert , Edwin Kermarrec et al.
Nature Physics, 2020, 16 (4), pp.469-474. ⟨10.1038/s41567-020-0792-1⟩
Journal articles hal-02624312v1
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Human Postural Responses to High Vestibular Specific Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Stimulations

Nicolas Bouisset , Sebastien Villard , A. Legros
IEEE Access, 2020, 8, pp.165387-165395. ⟨10.1109/access.2020.3022554⟩
Journal articles hal-03499662v1
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Probing the circuits of conscious perception with magnetophosphenes

Julien Modolo , Mahmoud Hassan , Giulio Ruffini , Alexandre Legros
Journal of Neural Engineering, 2020, 17 (3), pp.036034. ⟨10.1088/1741-2552/ab97f7⟩
Journal articles hal-02798352v1

Universal $T$-linear resistivity and Planckian dissipation in overdoped cuprates

A. Legros , S. Benhabib , Wojciech Tabis , F. Laliberté , M. Dion et al.
Nature Physics, 2019, 15 (2), pp.142-147. ⟨10.1038/s41567-018-0334-2⟩
Journal articles cea-02086419v1

Frequency‐dependent and montage‐based differences in phosphene perception thresholds via transcranial alternating current stimulation

A. Legros , Ian Evans , Stephen Palmisano , Sarah Loughran , Rodney Croft et al.
Bioelectromagnetics, 2019, 40 (6), pp.365-374. ⟨10.1002/bem.22209⟩
Journal articles hal-03499677v1
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Synopsis of IEEE Std C95.1™-2019 “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels With Respect to Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 Hz to 300 GHz”

A. Legros , William Bailey , Tim Harrington , Akimasa Hirata , Robert Rob Kavet et al.
IEEE Access, 2019, 7, pp.171346-171356. ⟨10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2954823⟩
Journal articles hal-03499674v1

Impact of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on human postural control

Sebastien Villard , Alicia Allen , Nicolas Bouisset , Michael Corbacio , Alex Thomas et al.
Experimental Brain Research, 2019, 237 (3), pp.611-623. ⟨10.1007/s00221-018-5442-9⟩
Journal articles hal-03499684v1
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Crystal growth and doping control of HgBa2CuO4+δ, the model compound for high-T superconductors

A. Legros , B. Loret , A. Forget , P. Bonnaillie , G. Collin et al.
Materials Research Bulletin, 2019, 118, pp.110479. ⟨10.1016/j.materresbull.2019.05.004⟩
Journal articles cea-02145955v1
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Human exposure to power frequency magnetic fields up to 7.6 mT: An integrated EEG/fMRI study

Julien Modolo , Alex W. Thomas , Alexandre Legros
Bioelectromagnetics, 2017, 38 (6), pp.425-435. ⟨10.1002/bem.22064⟩
Journal articles hal-01579726v1

Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field of up to 50 millitesla on human tremor and EEG: A pilot study

S.D. Jazi , Julien Modolo , C. Baker , S. Villard , A. Legros et al.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2017, 14 (12), pp.1446. ⟨10.3390/ijerph14121446⟩
Journal articles hal-01671692v1
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Effects of a 60 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure Up to 3000 μT on Human Brain Activation as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

A. Legros , Julien Modolo , Samantha Brown , John Roberston , Alex Thomas et al.
PLoS ONE, 2015, 10 (7), pp.e0132024. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0132024⟩
Journal articles hal-03499692v1
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The next move in neuromodulation therapy: a question of timing

Julien Modolo , A. Legros , Anne Beuter
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2015, 8, pp.162. ⟨10.3389/fncom.2014.00162⟩
Journal articles hal-03499706v1

Anecdotal report of magnetophosphene perception in 50 mT 20, 50 and 60 Hz magnetic fields

A. Legros , M. Souques , M. Plante , G. Ostiguy , D. Goulet et al.
Radioprotection, 2014, 49 (1), pp.69-71. ⟨10.1051/radiopro/2013088⟩
Journal articles hal-03499716v1
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Neural mass modeling of power-line magnetic fields effects on brain activity

J. Modolo , A. W. Thomas , A. Legros
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2013, 7, pp.34. ⟨10.3389/fncom.2013.00034⟩
Journal articles hal-03499720v1

Possible mechanisms of synaptic plasticity modulation by extremely low-frequency magnetic fields

Julien Modolo , Alex Thomas , A. Legros
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 2013, 32 (2), pp.137-144. ⟨10.3109/15368378.2013.776341⟩
Journal articles hal-03499723v1
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Using “Smart Stimulators” to Treat Parkinson’s Disease: Re-Engineering Neurostimulation Devices

Julien Modolo , Anne Beuter , Alex Thomas , A. Legros
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2012, 6, pp.69. ⟨10.3389/fncom.2012.00069⟩
Journal articles hal-03499727v1

Neurophysiological and behavioral effects of a 60 Hz, 1,800 μT magnetic field in humans

A. Legros , M. Corbacio , A. Beuter , J. Modolo , D. Goulet et al.
European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2012, 112 (5), pp.1751-1762. ⟨10.1007/s00421-011-2130-x⟩
Journal articles hal-03499734v1

Human cognitive performance in a 3 mT power-line frequency magnetic field

A. Legros , Michael Corbacio , Samantha Brown , Stephanie Dubois , Daniel Goulet et al.
Bioelectromagnetics, 2011, 32 (8), pp.620-633. ⟨10.1002/bem.20676⟩
Journal articles hal-03499738v1

Evolution of hybrid functional imaging in bioelectromagnetics research

John Robertson , Alex Thomas , Julien Modolo , Jodi Miller , Nicole Juen et al.
Environmentalist, 2011, 31 (2), pp.134-139. ⟨10.1007/s10669-011-9309-x⟩
Journal articles hal-03501813v1

Model-driven therapeutic treatment of neurological disorders: reshaping brain rhythms with neuromodulation

Julien Modolo , A. Legros , Alex Thomas , Anne Beuter
Interface Focus, 2011, 1 (1), pp.61-74. ⟨10.1098/rsfs.2010.0509⟩
Journal articles hal-03501826v1

A comparison of MR-based attenuation correction in PET versus SPECT

H Marshall , R Stodilka , J Theberge , E Sabondjian , A. Legros et al.
Physics in Medicine and Biology, 2011, 56 (14), pp.4613-4629. ⟨10.1088/0031-9155/56/14/024⟩
Journal articles hal-03501819v1

Pulsed magnetic field exposure induces lasting changes in neural network dynamics

Robert Stodilka , Julien Modolo , Frank Prato , John Robertson , Charles Cook et al.
Neurocomputing, 2011, 74 (12-13), pp.2164-2175. ⟨10.1016/j.neucom.2011.01.025⟩
Journal articles hal-03501824v1

Using wavelet analysis to detect the influence of low frequency magnetic fields on human physiological tremor

A.N. Pavlov , A.N. Tupitsyn , A. Legros , A. Beuter , E. Mosekilde et al.
Physiological Measurement, 2007, 28 (3), pp.321-333
Journal articles hal-00401063v1

Individual subject sensitivity to extremely low frequency magnetic field

A. Legros , A. Beuter
NeuroToxicology, 2006, 27 (4), pp.534-546
Journal articles hal-00401053v1

Transient effect of low intensity magnetic field on human motor behavior

A. Legros , P. Gaillot , A. Beuter
Medical Engineering & Physics, 2006, 28 (8), pp.827-836
Journal articles hal-00401056v1

Effect of a low intensity magnetic field on human motor behavior

A. Legros , A. Beuter
Bioelectromagnetics, 2005, 26 (8), pp.657-669
Journal articles hal-00401035v1

Human acute neurophysiological perceptions associated with ELF flux densities up to 50 mT

A. Legros , D. Goulet , M. Plante , G. Ostiguy , Julien Modolo et al.
2019 IEEE Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean, RADIO 2019, Sep 2019, Reunion Island, France. pp.8968916, ⟨10.23919/RADIO46463.2019.8968916⟩
Conference papers hal-02535135v1
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Reconstruction of brain networks involved in magnetophosphene perception using dense electroencephalography

Julien Modolo , Mahmoud Hassan , Alexandre Legros
BioEM2018, Jun 2018, Portorož, Slovenia
Conference papers hal-01736007v1

Effects of a Power-line Frequency Magnetic Field on Human Cognitive Processing: Preliminary Results

M. Corbacio , A. G. Legros , A. Beuter , J. Weller , S. Dubois et al.
Lawson Research Day, Mar 2009, London, Canada
Conference papers hal-00401310v1

Physiological and neuro-behavioral effects of an exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field at 1800 microtesla

A. Legros , D. Mcnamee , A. Beuter , S. Brown , S. Dubois et al.
Bioelectromagnetics Society, Jun 2008, San Diego, United States
Conference papers hal-00401302v1

Human acute exposure to a 60 Hz, 1800 microtesla magnetic field: physiological, neurophysiological and behavioral effects

A. Legros , D. Mcnamee , A. Beuter , D. Goulet , M. Plante et al.
The Bioelectromagnetics Society, Jun 2007, Kanazawa, Japan
Conference papers hal-00401230v1

Power-Line frequency Magnetic Fields Effects on Human Neurophysiology and Motor Behaviors

A. Legros , D. Mcnamee , A. Beuter , D. Goulet , M. Plante et al.
URSI International Union of Radio Science, Jul 2007, Ottawa, Canada
Conference papers hal-00401227v1

Analyse cinématique de la bradykinésie des syndromes parkinsoniens : étude préliminaire

C. Geny , A. Legros , M. Charif , V. Gonzales , G. Garrigues et al.
Société de Neurologie, 2006, Genève, Suisse
Conference papers hal-00401209v1

Biophysical effects of a 60 Hz Magnetic field: from neurophysiology to motor behaviour

A. Legros , A. Beuter , D. Goulet , M. Plante , Fs Prato et al.
Bioelectromagnetism Society, Jun 2006, Cancun, Mexico
Conference papers hal-00401206v1

Neurophysiological and behavioral effects of human acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field up to 1800 µT: Preliminary results

A. Legros , A. Beuter , L. Keenliside , D. Goulet , M. Plante et al.
4th Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Oct 2006, Demokritos, Greece
Conference papers hal-00401171v1

Proposal to study biophysical effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field: From neurophysiology to motor behaviors

A. Legros , A. Beuter , D. Goulet , M. Plante , F. S Prato et al.
The Bioelectromagnetics Society, Jun 2006, Cancun, Mexico
Conference papers hal-00401180v1

Analyse cinématique de la bradykinésie des syndromes parkinsoniens

C. Geny , A. Legros , M. Charif , V. Gonzales , G. Garrigues et al.
Journées Neurologiques de Langue Française, Apr 2006, Toulouse, France
Conference papers hal-00401159v1

Could a 50 Hz, 1000 µT magnetic field have a transient effect on human physiological tremor?

A. Legros , P. Gaillot , D. Nguyen , D. Goulet , M. Plante et al.
The Bioelectromagnetics Society, Jun 2005, Dublin, Ireland
Conference papers hal-00401116v1

Could human physiological tremor be transiently modified by the switch of a 50 Hz, 1000 µT MF?

A. Legros , P. Gaillot , D. Nguyen , D. Goulet , M. Plante et al.
Bioelectromagnetism Society, Jun 2005, Dublin, Ireland
Conference papers hal-00401154v1

L'exposition à un champ magnétique de 1000 µT à 50 Hz peut-elle être détectée dans le tremblement physiologique humain ?

A. Legros , A. Beuter
Société Française de Radioprotection, Jun 2005, Nantes, France
Conference papers hal-00401120v1