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Annabelle Lever

Oct. 2020 Professeure des Universités, Sciences Po, Paris. Sept. 2017 – PAST, Sciences Po, Paris et Chercheuse Permanente, CEVIPOF. (Centre de recherches politiques de Sciences Po)
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Current Research categories/Topics (sections on motivation, objectives, outcomes/activities) 1. DEMOCRACY, Equality and the Ethics of Voting My research here is a development of older work on compulsory voting and the secret ballot, that led me to wonder whether we should vote for ‘the common good’? As in most things, there seem to be multiple, partly conflicting, ethical demands that we need to consider when voting – whether we look at elections from the perspective of ‘ideal theory’ or, as I usually do, from a more realistic perspective. Yet much of the academic literature makes it sound as though the only right way is to vote for the ‘common good’ of one’s fellow citizens. The reason for this position is the assumption that the alternative is to vote on one’s self-interest. That assumption, however, is not persuasive, because we can easily imagine more cosmopolitan, egalitarian, environmentally-aware and future-generations-conscious ways of voting between privileging the good of one’s fellow citizens and focusing only on one’s own good. So, in considering whether people have a duty to vote, whether they should vote openly rather than secretly, and whether it would be better to replace the practice of elections and voting with lotteries, it is as well to consider the complexity of the choices that people face as voters. Links to different papers In fact, part of the point of REDEM, the European Research project which I lead (2019 -22) was, precisely, to explore that complexity in light of mounting alienation from electoral politics throughout the EU and differentially rates of electoral abstention which mean that the young vote at rates much lower than the old, and that poorer, less-educated voters vote much less frequently than their wealthier and educationally advantaged peers. If voting can be ethically demanding and morally painful for anyone, it is often voters on the left, rather than the political right who are asked to ‘hold their noses’ and to vote for a candidate that they really don’t like in order to avoid the accession to office of someone much worse. If so, the unequal distribution of the moral burdens of voting may itself be a factor in explaining differential patterns of abstention; and the frequency of those demands may play a role in permanently alienating people from electoral politics. Because voters are moral agents, not just the point at which different social forces intersect, attention to the ethics of voting can illuminate voters behaviour and highlight the interplay between social inequalities, institutional constraints (including constitutional ones) and the political outcomes. Link to Redem My research in this area now concerns the relationship between the right to vote and the right to stand as a representative of others, and the way that this underappreciated, but important, democratic right ought to shape the ways we think about the rights of citizens as voters, as well as representatives. In due course, I hope to explore its implications for the relationship between voters, candidates and parties, and for the way we think about the funding of electoral politics in democracies. Links… I have just written (and published) a bunch of papers on democracy, sortition and elections, focusing particularly on the conceptions of equality and accountability at stake in the ways we understand democracy. links As a result of this work, I am now particularly interested in thinking about what democratic citizens can be accountable to each other for doing, or failing to do as voters, as jurors, as members of different deliberative and advisory bodies and as elected representatives. Link Finally, I am trying to get a better sense of the demands of formal equality in legal and political contexts, given that the demands of procedural equality have to be sensitive to the substantive differences between democratic and undemocratic government – though it will probably take me quite a while to make progress in this area! My hope is that the collections of papers and talks that make up my research in this area will eventually become part of a book that links my early work on the ethics of voting – largely motivated by questions about the value of privacy for democratic government – to a body of research focused on the ethics and politics of democratic elections, which has occupied me in the past few years. 2. Satire and Democracy My research here was motivated by the murder of Samuel Paty – a French teacher who had shown some satirical cartoons of Mohamed to students in his civics class in ‘collège’. I was struck by the fact that immediate debate after his murder – as after the murders of the cartoonists associated with the satirical magazine, Charlie Hebdo, was dominated by talk about freedom, equality, toleration and the like, but had nothing specifically to say about the particular type of expression at issue – namely, satirical cartoons. And so, over the past few years, I have developed a research project, along with a relatively informal network of other scholars, to try to understand the challenges that satire poses for democracies – particularly in the age of the internet. So far, my contribution to that project has largely consisted in grant-writing and I still have to write up my ideas in other forms. However, in October 2022 we held a conference on satire and democracy link which, I hope, will be the first of several, and the grant which made that possible has also funded some interdisciplinary research that will be appearing on the site shortly. My own interest is in the duties of politicians – as distinct from teachers, cartoonists, parents, readers – to foster dialogue and the search for mutual understanding, despite bitter substantive disagreement about the value of satire and the forms that it can take in a democracy. In France, we hear a great deal about the duties of everyone except politicians in this matter. Yet as conflict over satire has been a feature of European politics since the start of the ‘Rushdie Affair’ in 1988, we might expect our politicians to expect continuing conflict in this area, and to consider what forms of state-supported representation, dialogue and public deliberation might be used to pre-empt, as well as to respond to it. As in economic and other matters, basic rights and duties set a framework withing which collective solutions to common problems must be explored. I am therefore doubtful that getting the right conception of ‘laicité’, or some other value, will be sufficient to determine how democracies should handle satire – and am therefore interested in exploring the way the moral and political shape the different ways we can think about, and regulate satirical expression democratically. 3. Methodology, Democracy and Equality I have long been interested in the methodological implications of valuing democracy, and the different ways in which we can organise societies democratically. Link I have now taught an MA seminar on methodology and epistemology for many years, varying the content from year to year – although core elements of the course always include weeks on thought experiments and what social scientists might call ‘comparative’ methods; on internal critique and interpretive reconstruction, as well as on the challenges of thinking about race and gender and their relationship to each other. Issues of methodology affect the ways I think about constitutionalism and its relationship to democracy, as well as topics such as racial profiling, or freedom of religion. Link However, methodological challenges are now figuring in my work in a rather different way – through my collaboration with Lou Safra, a cognitive scientist who is a member of Cevipof, the research lab at Sciences Po, of which I am a member. Our work together started during the pandemic, based on our exasperation with ways of thinking about the Covid as an exogenous threat to our societies whose ravages had nothing to do with the types of society we are, the ways in which we typically organise work and travel, or access to leisure, food, healthcare and the like. Link Since then, however, we have started to explore other questions related to citizens’ relationship to each other - in particular, to their ability to see and treat each other as equals. One of the frustrating things about being a political theorist is that it is often hard to find data on things that would illuminate the issues you are interested in because social scientists and historians are often indifferent to the particular issue that, from a philosophical perspective, it would be especially desirable to know more about. One area where this lack is particularly painful for me – and where I am still seeking research partners – is on the experience of women in Switzerland who lived through the change from a constitutional, but undemocratic, government to one that was constitutional and democratic. What getting the vote meant to them then, and what in retrospect, they think its significance is strikes me as something that might really help philosophers and social scientists to think about the value of democratic voting rights – and better to understand the relationship between constitutional government and the protection of civil rights and democratic rights to vote and be a politician. However, there is much that we don’t understand about the way people think about each other as political agents and political subjects. And so what we are exploring now, is the scope for online experiments to illuminate people’s conceptions of their responsibilities to each other and of their political capacities and skills. Link Empirical information – let alone experimental information – is unlikely to resolve any matter of philosophical interest. But it can help us to see whether the sorts of psychological assumptions, often implicit and unacknowledged in political and philosophical research, are likely to be well-founded, and to tease out the different factors that may be affecting people’s behaviour, self-conceptions, relationships. In short, experimental research, along with other social scientific research, can prod us to refine our concepts, explore different ways of understanding basic values and can suggest new lines of social-theoretic explanation. In turn, philosophy can motivate and, hopefully, contribute to more experimental forms of political analysis. Hopefully, putting the pieces together will provide substantively interesting, as well as methodologically fruitful ways of exploring the interplay between the personal and the political characteristic of democratic politics.

Research domains


Skills

contemporary political philosophy democratic theory ethics and public policy philosophy of race sexual equality privacy security intellectual property ethics and public policy ethics of voting

Publications

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Random Selection, Democracy and Citizen Expertise

Annabelle Lever
Journal articles hal-04055092v1
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Democracy: Should We Replace Elections With Random Selection?

Annabelle Lever
Danish Yearbook of Philosophy, 2023, 56 (2), ⟨10.1163/24689300-bja10042⟩
Journal articles hal-03891035v2
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Egalité démocratique et tirage au sort

Annabelle Lever , Chiara Destri
Raison-publique.fr : arts, politique, société, 2023, Philosophie des élections, 26, pp.63-79
Journal articles hal-03905011v1
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"The Circumstances of Democracy": Why Random Selection Is Not Better Than Elections if We Value Political Equality and Privacy

Annabelle Lever
Washington University Review of Philosophy, 2023, 2023 (3), pp.100-115
Journal articles hal-04214708v1
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Review of Yves Sintomer's The Government of Chance: Sortition from Athens to the Present

Annabelle Lever
European Political Science, 2023, online first
Journal articles hal-04214685v1
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Egalité démocratique et tirage au sort

Chiara Destri , Annabelle Lever
Raison-publique.fr : arts, politique, société, 2023, 26, pp.63-79
Journal articles hal-04168637v1
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Democracy and Truth

Annabelle Lever
Raisons politiques, 2021, Pragmatism and Epistemic Democracy, 81, pp.29 - 38. ⟨10.3917/rai.081.0029⟩
Journal articles hal-04168683v1
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Pragmatism and Epistemic Democracy Introduction

Annabelle Lever , Dominik Gerber
Raisons politiques, 2021, Pragmatism and Epistemic Democracy, 81, pp.5 - 10. ⟨10.3917/rai.081.0005⟩
Journal articles hal-04168686v1
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Rethinking the Epidemiogenic Power of Modern Western Societies

Annabelle Lever , Lou Safra
Frontiers in Sociology, 2021, 6, pp.638777. ⟨10.3389/fsoc.2021.638777⟩
Journal articles hal-03551816v1
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Intro Special Issue: Pragmatism and Epistemic Democracy

Annabelle Lever , Dominik Gerber
Raison-publique.fr : arts, politique, société, 2021
Journal articles hal-03925651v1
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Plaidoyer pour la déconstruction

Annabelle Lever
Telos, 2021
Journal articles hal-03905004v1
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A Sense of Proportion: some thoughts on equality, security and justice

Annabelle Lever
Res Publica, 2020, 26 (3), pp.357-371. ⟨10.1007/s11158-020-09450-8⟩
Journal articles hal-02893977v1
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le mot 'race': un débat français

Annabelle Lever
Analyse Opinion Critique, 2019
Journal articles hal-03891038v1
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Towards a Democracy-Centred Ethics

Annabelle Lever
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 2019, 22 (1), pp.18-33. ⟨10.1080/13698230.2017.1403120⟩
Journal articles hal-03457762v1

Privacy and Photography: Interview with Camille Simon, photo ed; L'Obs

Annabelle Lever
Source, 2018
Journal articles hal-03891040v1

Privacy and Photography

Annabelle Lever
Source, 2018, 96, pp.14
Journal articles hal-03570967v1

Democratic Epistemology and Democratic Morality: The Appeal and Challenges of Peircean Pragmatism

Annabelle Lever , Clayton Chin
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 2017, 22 (4), pp.432-453. ⟨10.1080/13698230.2017.1357411⟩
Journal articles hal-02506462v1

Review of 'Law and the philosophy of privacy' By Janice Richardson

Annabelle Lever
Contemporary Political Theory, 2017, 16 (3), pp.402-404. ⟨10.1057/s41296-016-0019-5⟩
Journal articles hal-02506470v1
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Democracy, Epistemology and the Problem of All-White Juries

Annabelle Lever
Journal of Applied Philosophy, 2017, 34 (4), pp.541-556. ⟨10.1111/japp.12203⟩
Journal articles hal-02506495v1
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Democratic Equality and Freedom of Religion: Beyond Coercion v. Persuasion

Annabelle Lever
Filosofia e questioni pubbliche, 2016, 6 (1)
Journal articles hal-03567910v1
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Review of 'White Privilege and Black Rights: The injustice of U.S,. Police Racial Profiling and Homicide' By Naomi Zack

Annabelle Lever
Ethics, 2016
Journal articles hal-03571116v1

Review of 'Luck Egalitarianism' By Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen

Annabelle Lever
Notre Dame Philosophical Review, 2016
Journal articles hal-03567826v1
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Privacy and Democracy

Annabelle Lever
Law, Culture and the Humanities, 2015, 11 (2), pp.164 - 183
Journal articles hal-02506497v1
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Democracy and epistemology: a reply to Talisse

Annabelle Lever
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 2015, 18 (1), pp.74-81. ⟨10.1080/13698230.2014.995502⟩
Journal articles hal-02506474v1

When the Philosopher Enters the Room

Annabelle Lever
Journal of Philosophy and Public Issues, 2014, 4 (3), pp.7 - 19
Journal articles hal-02506473v1
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Taxation, Conscientious Objection and Religious Freedom

Annabelle Lever
Ethical Perspectives, 2013, 20 (1), pp.144 - 153
Journal articles hal-02506489v1
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Privacy, Private Property and Collective Property

Annabelle Lever
Good Society, 2012, 21 (1), pp.47 - 60. ⟨10.1353/gso.2012.0009⟩
Journal articles hal-03473820v1

Treating People as Equals

Annabelle Lever
Journal of Ethics, 2011, 15 (1-2), pp.61 - 78. ⟨10.1007/s10892-010-9094-7⟩
Journal articles hal-03415482v1
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Democracy and Truth

Annabelle Lever
Raisons politiques, 2011
Journal articles hal-03925635v1

Compulsory Voting

Annabelle Lever
British Journal of Political Science, 2010, 40 (4), pp.897 - 915
Journal articles hal-02506467v1
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Democracy and Voting

Annabelle Lever
British Journal of Political Science, 2010, 40 (4), pp.925 - 929. ⟨10.1017/S0007123410000177⟩
Journal articles hal-02506507v1

Democracy and Judicial Review

Annabelle Lever
Perspectives on Politics, 2009, 7 (4), pp.805 - 822
Journal articles hal-02506458v1
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Democratic Choice, Legitimacy and the Case Against Compulsory Voting

Annabelle Lever
Public Policy Research, 2009
Journal articles hal-03570202v1

Democracy and Judicial Review: Are They Really Incompatible?

Annabelle Lever
Perspectives on Politics, 2009, 7 (4), pp.805 - 822. ⟨10.1017/S1537592709991812⟩
Journal articles hal-03415656v1
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Liberalism, Democracy and the Ethics of Voting

Annabelle Lever
Politics, 2009, 29 (3), pp.223 - 227. ⟨10.1111/j.1467-9256.2009.01359.x⟩
Journal articles hal-03602599v1
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Is Compulsory Voting Justified?

Annabelle Lever
Public reason, 2009, 1 (1), pp.57 - 74
Journal articles hal-03610090v1

‘A Liberal Defence of Compulsory Voting’: Some Reasons for Scepticism

Annabelle Lever
Politics, 2008, 28 (1), pp.61 - 64
Journal articles hal-02506469v1

Mrs. Aremac and the Camera: A Response to Ryberg

Annabelle Lever
Res publica (Liverpool), 2008, 14 (1), pp.35 - 42
Journal articles hal-02506457v1
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Mill and the Secret Ballot: Beyond Coercion and Corruption

Annabelle Lever
Utilitas, 2007, 19 (3), pp.354 - 378. ⟨10.1017/S0953820807002634⟩
Journal articles hal-03459646v1
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What’s Wrong with Racial profiling? Another Look at the Problem

Annabelle Lever
Criminal Justice Ethics, 2007, 26 (1), pp.20 - 28
Journal articles hal-02506494v1

Is Judicial Review Undemocratic?

Annabelle Lever
Public Law, 2007, pp.280 - 298
Journal articles hal-02506476v1
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Privacy Rights and Democracy: A Contradiction in Terms?

Annabelle Lever
Contemporary Political Theory, 2006, 5 (2), pp.142 - 162. ⟨10.1057/palgrave.cpt.9300187⟩
Journal articles hal-02506456v1
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Why Racial Profiling is Hard to Justify

Annabelle Lever
Philosophy and Public Affairs, 2005, 33 (1), pp.94 - 110
Journal articles hal-02506500v1

Feminism, Democracy and the Right to Privacy

Annabelle Lever
Minerva, 2004, 9, pp.1 - 31
Journal articles hal-02506480v1

Ethics and the patenting of human genes

Annabelle Lever
Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law, 2001, 1 (1), pp.31 - 46
Journal articles hal-02506511v1
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The Politics of Paradox

Annabelle Lever
Constellations, 2000, 7 (2), pp.242 - 254. ⟨10.1111/1467-8675.00184⟩
Journal articles hal-02506485v1
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Must Privacy and Sexual Equality Conflict?

Annabelle Lever
Social Research: An International Quarterly, 2000, 67 (4), pp.1137 - 1171
Journal articles hal-02506482v1

Ideas That Matter: Justice, Democracy, Rights

Debra Satz , Annabelle Lever
Debra Satz; Annabelle Lever. Oxford University Press, pp.280, 2019, 9780190904951
Books hal-02161086v1

Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy

Annabelle Lever , Andrei Poama
Annabelle Lever; Andrei Poama. Routledge, pp.560, 2018, Routledge handbooks in applied ethics, 9781138201279
Books hal-02506510v1
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A Democratic conception of privacy

Annabelle Lever
Author House, 2014, 9781491878385
Books hal-02506424v1

On Privacy

Annabelle Lever
Routledge, 2012, Thinking in Action, 9780415395700
Books hal-02506481v1

La démocratie et la sélection: tirage au sort, élections et l'égalité

Annabelle Lever
La Démocratie, une idée force, Mare et Martin, 2023, Démocratie, une idée force
Book sections hal-03891030v1

Justice in Global Intellectual Property

Annabelle Lever , Cristian Timmermann
Justice in Economic Governance, inPress
Book sections hal-03904989v1

Equality and Constitutionality

Annabelle Lever
Richard Bellamy; Jeff King. Cambridge Handbook of Constitutional Theory, Cambridge University Press, 2022, 9781108491310
Book sections hal-03366184v1

Towards a Political Philosophy of Human Rights

Annabelle Lever
Debra Satz; Annabelle Lever. Ideas that Matter, Oxford University Press, 2019, 9780190904951
Book sections hal-03397966v1
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Should Voting Be Compulsory? Democracy and the Ethics of Voting

Annabelle Lever , Alexandru Volacu
Annabelle Lever; Andrei Poama. The Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy, Routledge, pp.242 - 254, 2018, 9781138201279
Book sections hal-02506504v1
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La vie privée

Annabelle Lever
Julien Deonna; Emma Tieffenbach. Petit traité des valeurs, Éditions d'Ithaque, 2018, 9782916120911
Book sections hal-03567375v1

Racial Profiling

Annabelle Lever
Bob Fischer. Ethics, Left and Right: The Moral Issues That Divide Us, Oxford University Press, 2018
Book sections hal-03567401v1
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Must We Vote for the Common Good?

Annabelle Lever
Emily Crookston; David Killoren; Jonathan Trerise. Political Ethics, Routledge, pp.145 - 156, 2017, 9781315678443
Book sections hal-02506484v1
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Equality and Conscience

Annabelle Lever
Cécile Laborde; Aurélia Bardon. Religion in Liberal Political Philosophy, Oxford University Press, pp.233 - 248, 2017, 9780198794394
Book sections hal-02506491v1
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Race and Racial Profiling

Annabelle Lever
Naomi Zack. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Race, Oxford University Press, pp.425 - 435, 2017, 9780190236953
Book sections hal-02506478v2
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Democracy, Privacy and Security

Annabelle Lever
Adam D Moore. Privacy, Security and Accountability, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp.105 - 124, 2016, 9781783484768
Book sections hal-02506502v1
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Privacy, Democracy and Freedom of Expression

Annabelle Lever
Beate Roessler; Dorota Mokrosinska. Social Dimensions of Privacy, Cambridge University Press, pp.162 - 180, 2015, 9781107280557
Book sections hal-02506498v1
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Honte et vie privée

Annabelle Lever
André Lacroix; Jean-Jacques Sarfati. La honte, Le Cercle Herméneutique, pp.129-148, 2014, 9782917957288
Book sections hal-02506460v1
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The value of privacy

Annabelle Lever
A Democratic Conception of Privacy, Author House Self Publishing, pp.51-89, 2013, 9781491878385
Book sections hal-02506493v2

Democracy, deliberation and public service reform

Annabelle Lever
Henry Kippin; Gerald Stoker; Simon Griffiths. Public Services, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013, 9781849665940
Book sections hal-03397887v1
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Introduction

Annabelle Lever
Annabelle Lever. On Privacy, Routledge; Routledge, 2012, 9780415395700
Book sections hal-02506486v2
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Introduction - Philosophy of Intellectual Property: Incentives, Rights and Duties

Annabelle Lever
Annabelle Lever. New frontiers in the philosophy of intellectual property, Cambridge University Press, pp.1-25, 2012, Cambridge Intellectual Property and Information Law
Book sections hal-02506501v1
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Privacy, Equality and the Ethics of Neuroimaging

Annabelle Lever
Sebastian Edwards. I Know What You Are Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy, Oxford University Press, pp.205 - 222, 2012, 9780199596492
Book sections hal-02506464v1
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Privacy and Democracy

Annabelle Lever
Annabelle Lever. On Privacy, Routledge; Routledge, 2012, 9780415395700
Book sections hal-02506468v1
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Is It Ethical To Patent Human Genes?

Annabelle Lever
Axel Gosseries; Alain Marciano; Alain Strowel. Intellectual Property and Theories of Justice, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, 9780230007093
Book sections hal-02506466v1